10 Best Dashcam Back Cameras – Review And Buying Guide

Have you ever wondered what is the best dashcam back cameras? Well, I did, so I went on a hunt to find out. It turns out that it was relatively hard to do because there are many aspects to consider. Besides, everyone has different needs and preferences. However, after careful research, I was able to create my personal list of the top dashcam back cameras right now, which I’m going to share with you today.

Finding the best dashcam back cameras for your budget if you’re looking for some help keeping yourself in shape or need guidance on where to start. This review gives you an overview of your options. There is a lot of dashcam back cameras on the market; which one should you buy? I’ve reviewed and rated 10 of the most popular products in this article.

A selection process

We analyzed a wide range of dashcam back cameras to provide a great overview of the current market. Each was objective across a few criteria to determine relative levels of performance. We compare each across the different factors to determine which products are best for specific applications. Based on our expert recommendations, we have selected our top picks:

  • Size
  • Brand value
  • Features
  • Specifications
  • Durability
  • Quality
  • materials
  • Style
  • Design
  • Longevity
  • Consumer ratings & reviews
  • Product price
  • Warranties
  • Types

10 dashcam back cameras: Editor Recommended

10 dashcam back cameras Review:

1. Dash Cam Front and Rear CHORTAU Dual Dash Cam 3 inch Dashboard Camera Full HD 170° Wide Angle Backup Camera with Night Vision WDR G-Sensor Parking Monitor Loop Recording Motion Detection

Features :

  • ★【Dash Cam Front and Rear】This dual dash cam equipped with 1080P resolution front camera and waterproof rear camera.The car dashcam with 6 pcs IR LED and Wide Dynamic Range, the front camera captures the license plates and road signs clearly even at night, thus ensuring to get you the best footage. Wide-angle front (170°) and rear(130°)camera help eliminate the blind spots of your vision.
  • ★【Loop Recording & Emergency Accident Locks】Seamless loop recording overwrites the old footage with new content when the card is full. Variable sensitivity G-Sensor automatically detects a sudden collision and immediately saves the relevant footage and locks it to SOS file. Thus preventing any overwriting and thereby protecting your video evidence. Keep you away from driving disputes. This dashboard camera supports up to 32GB of micro SD card (NOTE: card NOT included in package).
  • ★ 【Dash Cams with Parking Mode】The dash cams automatically powers on and starts recording as soon as impact is detected, thus providing you a video evidence if your car is scratched by someone in parking. Hence ensuring your peace of mind with complete 24×7 monitoring of your car.We suggest some important function settings for your daily using: G-Sensor level choose” low” , or turn off; loop recording choose “3 minutes”; motion detection choose “off” ; parking monitor choose “On”.
  • ★【Easy Installation & Use】This dash camera is very easy to install and operate with reference pictures in our user manual.Just insert SD card (not included) and connect to the power supply. The car dash camera will start recording immediately after igniting, shut down and save the video when you shut off the engine. Please download “User guide” in product page if you need more details of operation & installation instruction.
  • ★【For ever after-sales support 】CHORTAU is a remarkable company and believes in driving innovations to add value to our customers. We offer for ever after sales suppor for this dual dash cam, 7*24 hours technical support. If you have any queries of this dashcam,please reach our customer service team .

Additional Info :

Color black
Item Dimensions
Height 0.6
Width 1.6
Length 3
Weight 0.4

2. iiwey Dash Cam Front Rear and Inside 1080P Three Channels with IR Night Vision Car Camera SD Card Included Dashboard Camera Dashcam for Cars HDR Motion Detection and G-Sensor for Car, Taxi, Uber

Features :

  • 【Triple Lens, Triple Protection】 Three channels dash cams- Front, rear and cabin record simultaneously to witness your whole journey. Front and interior dual main camera can use separately if you like. Full HD 1920X1080P at 30 fps video enable to capture 6 lanes and license plates details. The inside view is also upgrade to 1920*1080P, which can capture the full inside view of the cars. The waterproof rear camera you can install it outside.
  • 【Superior Night Vision with IR Light】The T1 dash cam equipped with F1.8 aperture and Sony sensor, ensuring clear image at night. The inside camera has infrared LED, so even with no light, it will show the image (In black and white mode). WDR helps the dash cam perform better at night.
  • 【Loop Recording and G-sensor】Triggered by a built-in G-sensor, the dash cam can lock the video automatically when there is an emergency situation(Like collision or crash). And also you can manually lock the video when you need it as an evidence. The dash cam will simultaneously record, the newest video will replace the oldest one (Locked video will not be replaced)
  • 【Three Ways to Protect Your Car】The dash cam automatically powers on (Three cameras will turn on together) and starts recording as soon as impact is detected, thus providing you a video evidence if your car is scratched by someone in parking. Not like other one or two views dash cam, three channels never let off any corner. Hence ensuring your peace of mind with complete 24×7 monitoring of your car. We recommend to use the hard wire kit(Asin: B07Q29JZZY) installing your dashcam.
  • 【SD Card Included Worry-Free Guarantee】We have included a 32GB SD card and you needn’t to buy a SD card separately. The dash cam can use directly. We provide 12 months service and 30 days money back, if you have any questions regarding your product, please do not hesitate to contact us at customer care email, or drop us a message through the message chat box in Amazon, we will respond immediately.

Additional Info :

Item Dimensions
Height 1.7716535415
Width 1.968503935
Length 4.5275590505

3. Dash Camera for Cars, Super Night Vision Dash Cam Front and Rear with 32G SD Card, 1080P FHD DVR Car Dashboard Camera with G-Sensor, WDR, Parking Monitor, Loop Recording, Motion Detection 【2022】

Features :

  • 🛍️ 【1080P Full HD Dash Cams with USB Port】Car camera charger with USB port , 👉 no worry about the charging problems of mobile phones/mobile electronic devices even thought using this dual dash cam. Combines the f1.8 aperture and WDR tech, you can playback each clear detail on car dash cam or PC. ( VERY IMPORTANT ) Please do not using our usb cable as the dash cams charger, or maybe lead to the front camera can works but rear camera can not display!
  • 🛍️ 【Car Cameras with 32G SD Card】Dash cam front camera 3 Inches IPS Screen car on-dash mounted cameras with 32GB SD card can endless working under Loop Recording function. 👉 No worry about this dash cam front and rear will full of storage! Dash cam front and back combined with So ny sensor, you will get 30fps videos and 12MP pictures with this dashcams for cars front and rear.
  • 🛍️ 【Wide Angle Front and Rear Dash Cam】Dash cam front camera for car comes with 170°wide field of vision and 140° for dash cam rear. Ultra-wide field of car cameras reduces the blind spots and captures more details, also, 👉 there are 4 lens switching method that you can choose, security camera for car.
  • 🛍️【G-sensor On Car Camera – Dash Cam Front and Rear】Our car safety camera can auto detect and lock the driving recording that we need. Truly restored the driving video/photo with highly sensitivity. 👉 You can also set the camera for car to turn off the screen auto but still keep recording. (30seconds/1Min/2Min)
  • 🛍️【Plug and Play Front Dashcam for Car】You will find that you can easily and securely mount the suction cup to your windshield in seconds. This car dash camera’s operation is still simple and friendly for new users. If you don’t need the Reversing Mode, ther rear camera also can be very easily, just install and hide the wire. 👉 Please note, use the needle to insert the little hole on the ” RES” button, you can rest the factory setting, can fix the freeze /or other little questions well.
  • 🥰 🥰 Installation of Dual Dash Camera – Car Rear Dash Cam Cable : Way 1: Connect the red part of rear camera cable with the positive pole of reversing light, so that it will appear reversing mode when you parking, No recording when you reversing. Way 2: If your car already have built in reversing system monitor, NO NEED TO CONNECT THE RED WIRE, Just wrap it directly with tape. Install and hide the cable is ok! At this period, the rear camera can keep recording at reversing period.
  • 🥰 🥰 Front and rear dash cam with 32G SD Card, already inserted in Dash Car Camera. As a seller of dash cam and suppliers of other car camera sellers, we have collected the earliest data and feedback to upgrade our products, improve problems, and provide a 100-point great after-sales experience. or you can get the longer extension cable for the rear camera if you need it.( it is 6M’s rear cam cable in the package) Please trust us, trust your choice.
  • 🥰 🥰 Some Important Function Settings for this car security cameraon daily use : Select “low” for the gravity sensor level, or turn it off / Loop recording select “3 minutes” / Select “off” for motion detection / Parking monitor select “on”. Promise here: Really 1080P front dash cam. Please note: press “M” button to switch the Vidoe/Photo/Playback 3 Mode.
  • 🥰 🥰 As a supplier of dash dual cams, we have had feedback like this: the rear camera does not display/how to turn off the sound/how to play the rear mirror file or play it on the computer (1:something wront with the installation, please email the user munal’s mailbox. 2: press “down button” speedly turn on/off the audio. 3: Long press “up/down button” to switch the Rront and Rear recording file when you on playback mode, A20 car dash camera Support: MOV computer playback Format)
  • 🥰 🥰 About the Battery: all the battery of car dash cam in the market, only support auto turn on and recording a short time for the urgent situation when you parking. Need to plug the dual dash cams charger all the time. Do not use the free USB Cable as the Charger, the cable and the USB card reader only used to connect with your computer and playback the recording file.

Additional Info :

Color Black
Item Dimensions
Height 0.5118110231
Width 1.968503935
Length 3.543307083

4. WOLFBOX G840S 12“ Mirror Dash Cam Backup Camera,1296P Full HD Smart Rearview Mirror for Cars & Trucks, 1080P Front and Rear View Dual Cameras, Night Vision, Parking Assistance, Free 32GB Card & GPS

Features :

  • BIG SCREEN & BROAD VIEW – Upgraded from most rearview mirror cameras, WOLFBOX 170° front, and 140° rear lens provide an ultra-wide view, minimizing the blind spots for safe driving/reversing. With the smart screen split function, you can observe a dual-lens display simultaneously. With a 2.5D curved screen, the body is more smooth and more suitable for the curvature of the human retina. Its OEM looking makes the mirror camera perfectly integrate with the existing mirror.
  • CLEAR IMAGE & NIGHT VISION – With a built-in high-quality chip, the WOLFBOX mirror camera records front and rear with a high resolution of full HD1080P. When the front camera records only it can up to 1296P. The car camera applied an upgraded low-reflectivity LCD to reduce reflection during the day. A 6-layer glass lens enhances night vision in a dark environment. License plates and other small wordings can be displayed clearly.
  • SMART FUNCTIONS, SAFE DRIVING – ①Streaming Media Rearview; ②Parking Monitoring; ③GPS Function; ④G-Sensor; ⑤Collision boot recording; ⑥Loop Recording; ⑦Video time Lapse; ⑧Adjustable Display View Angle, etc
  • UPGRADED BACKUP CAMERA – Backup camera shows a rear view of the car by displaying high resolution streaming image in the rear-view mirror. We also add the “Upside down of rear view” and “Rear Cam Mirror Image” menus to adjust the rear image vertically or horizontally. So it can install on pick-up trucks, RVs, or even on the top roof more conveniently.
  • NEW UPGRADE, TYPE-C POWER SUPPLY – To make the use process more stable, the G840S Mirror Camera has been fully upgraded from Mini-USB to a Type-C socket, which can largely avoid restarting, high-temperature deformation, and so on. (if you need a hardwire kit, please buy a dedicated Type-C hardwire kit. Asin: B09X1L1GMX)

Additional Info :

Color Black
Item Dimensions
Height 0.70866
Width 2.83464
Length 11.85037
Weight 1.90038469844

5. ORSKEY Dash Cam Front and Rear 1080P Full HD Dual Dash Camera in Car Camera Dashboard Camera Dashcam for Cars 170 Wide Angle with 3.0″ LCD Display Night Vision and G-Sensor【2022】

Features :

  • Front and Rear Dual Recording Dash Cam: Full HD 1920X1080P at 30 fps video front camera with VGA waterproof rear cam. Simultaneously show front and back driving states, provide a safer daily driving environment.
  • Superior Night Vision Dash Cam: 6 unique infrared LED fill lights allows the dash cam to perform optimally in low light situations. WDR technology allows for the best night video.
  • 170° Wide Angle Dash Cam & 6G Lens : Combined with Sony sensor and 6 glass lens and 170 Degree wide angle lens allows COMS get more clear images. High-performance chipset which enables you to take up to 1080P 30fps full HD videos and 12MP pictures.
  • Intelligent Operation: G-sensor activated Emergency Recording automatically captures unexpected driving incidents and protects the recordings. Loop Recording allows continuous use by writing over old, unneeded footage. Note: Operation requires a micro SD Card (Support up to 32GB Card Not Included)
  • Easy Operation & Guarantee: Easily and securely mount to your windshield in seconds with the included suction cup. We also provide 12 months guarantee, with a qualified after-sale service team, 7 days/ 24 hours for serving you.

Additional Info :

Color Black
Item Dimensions
Height 2.0472440924
Width 3.543307083
Length 1.3779527545
Weight 0.1543235834

6. ORSKEY Dash Cam for Cars Front and Rear with SD Card 1080P Full HD in Car Camera Dual Lens Dashcam Wide Angle with Loop Recording and G-Sensor【2022】

Features :

  • 【Dash Cam Front and Rear】: Both front and rear cameras with super crystal full HD resolution and 170° wide-angle lens simultaneously capture all the road’s details in super clear definition, giving you complete peace of mind while driving your vehicle.
  • 【Car Camera with Super Night Vision】Both dual dash camera is loaded with super high-quality Sony Sensor, which has better night vision than any other sensors. Combined with F1.8 Aperture 6 Elements Glass Lens, it provides an excellent clearer view than most other dash cameras in low-light conditions.
  • 【 High-Performance Chip and Reliable Car dash cam】The car camera S900 features a high-performance CPU and high-end image sensor, making the front camera record in super HD 1920x1080P / 30FPS. With high resolution plus a powerful processor, the dashcam can capture all details clearly and bring you more explicit videos, which are reliable for restoring robust evidence of any moment.
  • 【Premium Functions】 This dual car camera equipped with loop recording, G-sensor, parking monitoring, motion detection, and HDR function provides multi-scene requirements and a safe driving experience.
  • 【Warranty & SD CARD INCLUDED】 We provide 12 monthly guarantees and 100% Satisfied Service with professional customer service. If you have any questions about dashcam, please contact our friendly customer service(service@orskey.com). Supports high-endurance micro-SD memory cards up to 32GB(Included) in memory size.

Additional Info :

Color Black
Item Dimensions
Height 2.0472440924
Width 3.543307083
Length 1.3779527545
Weight 0.15873282864

7. Z-Edge Dual Dash Cam 4.0″ Touch Screen Front and Rear Dash Cam FHD 1080P with Night Mode, 32GB Card Included,155 Degree Wide Angle, WDR, G-Sensor, Loop Recording, Support 256GB Max

Features :

  • 🚗🚕🚓ONE-HAND OPERATION TOUCH SCREEN : Featuring 4-inch sensitive touch screen with simple and elegant icons, The dual dash cam makes each operation more effortless and responsive, such as navigating the menus and settings, locking the current video. Thoughtful and friendly user interface for you to operate
  • 🚗🚕🚓4 PRESET OPTIMIZED MODES: Selecting a mode automatically optimizes four features with preset values designed to best suit your environment,saving your time having to customize each individually, Drive – Optimized for regular use/ Scenic – Longer video clips for easier video post-processing/WDR – For better light balance, great for bright days or nighttime driving/Park- Increases G-sensor sensitivity and battery efficiency for monitoring your parked vehicle
  • 🚗🚕🚓YOUR ON-THE-WAY WITNESS: The dash camera ensures simultaneous recording front and rear both in Full HD 1080P. Never miss a license plate in Full HD 1920x1080P at 30FPS and Single front camera provides you with a crystal clear QHD 2560x1440P@30fps video resolution. front and rear ultra wide 155-degree viewing angle captures more of the road around you. A 6 layer glass lens and powerful imaging processor ensure more details are captured. PIP mode supported, ensures clear and easy playback
  • 🚗🚕🚓SUPER CLEAR NIGHT VISION WITH WDR TECHNOLOGY: Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) technology compensates for light/dark spots and balances exposure, this ensures no overexposure during the day and brings greater clarity at night. It can also restore the true colors of objects for a fuller picture. Car license plates can be easily captured at night. Ensures the clear footage and images you need to record driving at night
  • 🚗🚕🚓AUTOMATIC SAFEGUARDS: Records automatically with vehicle ignition – switches off automatically with ignition off – energy saving LCD screen off timer – loop recording feature for efficient storage management – manual and automatic video protection from deletion – built-in G-sensor/accelerometer triggers crash vibration recording – parking mode watchdog for 24/7 surveillance of your vehicle with external battery pack or hardwire kit. Supports TF/micro SD cards up to 256GB

Additional Info :

Color Black
Item Dimensions
Height 1.2
Width 2.8
Length 4.8
Weight 1.45

8. 3 Channel Dash Cam Front and Rear Inside, 1080P Dash Camera for Cars, Dashcam Three Way Triple Car Camera with IR Night Vision, Loop Recording, G-Sensor, Parking Monitor, 24 Hours Recording

Features :

  • 【Three Channel Dash Cam for All-Round Protection】M2 dashcam built with a triple channel system, offer 165°Front camera, 160°Cabin Inside the camera, and 160°rear camera. Simultaneously captures video from the front, rear, and cabin of your car as vital evidence for dispute or accident.
  • 【1080P Dash Cam Front and Rear Inside with HD Display】High performance Novatek chipset and Sony Sensor, help deliver smooth 1080P front video + 720P cabin inside video + 720P rear video. 3 Channel Videos are displayed on the IPS screen giving you live time video feedback of 3 sides of your car.
  • 【Dashcam with Super Night Vision & IR Cabin Light】Thanks to f/1.8 big aperture & WDR (wide dynamic range) technology, the M2 car camera performs well in color precision and clarity whether day or night. 4 IR Light face to the cabin, accurately capture the driver and passengers even when the cabin is completely dark, ideal for rideshare drivers such as Uber, Lyft, and Taxi.
  • 【Auto Save the Collision Footage and Loop Recording】Built in Gravity-Shock Sensor, then the dash cam detects a collision or bump happens, the sensor will auto-lock the footage as evidence(protected files). The Loop recording function can overwrite the oldest unprotected files when the SD card is about full.
  • 【Evidence for collisions, theft, and vicious scratch happening after your car is parked.】Parking Monitor: When the dash cam detects a collision happens, it will auto power on then record a protected video (doesn’t need a hardwire kit). 24 Hours recording: the dashcam will go on recording after your car is parked (need connect to hardwire kit, buy extra ASIN B09SPN811C).
  • 【Dash Camera for Cars with Hidden Design & Easy to Install】Unique compact designed car camera, M2 dash camera for cars combine three cameras with a tiny size. Won’t shade your view or distract you whilst driving. With simplified rear camera installation, no need to remove the reversing light, just connect it with the front lens and it can be used.
  • 【Support Up to 64 GB Memory Card】NOTE: SD card is not included in this package. M2 dash camera for cars can support up to 64GB Class 10 U3 speed memory card. Recommend buying extra ASIN B08RG87JN5.
  • 【Worry-Free After-sale Service】Every customer is fully covered by a one-year warranty. We provide 7*24 technical support-respond within 12 hours. You can Email our customer care and we will answer any of your questions and resolve arising issues fast. If you’re having any doubts, it comes with a FULL REFUND within 30 DAYS.

Additional Info :

Color Silver grey
Item Dimensions
Height 1.8
Width 1.9
Length 3.9
Weight 0.4960400895

9. DASHCAM (2022)

Additional Info :

Release Date 2022-06-01T21:00:00.000Z

10. Dash Cam Front and Rear,Dashcams for Car with SD Card,1080P FHD Dual Dashboard Camera Recorder, 170° Wide Angle with 3″ IPS Display with Night Vision, Motion Detection, Loop Recording,Parking Monitor

Features :

  • 【Full HD 1080P Dash Cam】The GMAIPOP Dash Cam with SD card records with a 1920x1080p at 30fps Full HD resolution video, The Dash cam’s 6-layer glass front lens capture every road conditions and license plates details clearly in daytime and night.Using 3.0-inch IPS Display with 170° Wide Angle and HDR Technology to Record the Trip Images.powerful car camera for cars, Trucks, and SUV, Providing the most important evidence for car accidents.
  • 【Dual dash cam & 32GB TF card included】 the car dash camera has a huge front 170-degree viewing angle and the IP67 waterproof rear lens has a 100-degree viewing angle, dual-lens recording at the same time making the blind spot as small as possible. When parking, the rear camera automatically provides real-time back view, making parking safer.The Car Dash Cam with 32GB C10 High-Speed TF Card Inside Already, You will not have the hassle of selecting a suitable memory card.
  • 【Emergency File Protection & Seamless Loop Recording】 Seamless Loop Recording will overwrite the oldest footage with the newest one when the TF Card is going to be full. When a collision occurs, The Gravity Sensing will emergency lock and protect the current video file to prevent overwriting by loop recording, saving important evidences to help you away from disputes.
  • 【HDR & Enhanced Night Vision】this dash cam for cars has an F1.8 aperture lens and HDR technology that make video recording at night clearer and brighter, and automatically adjusts the light to prevent overexposure when surrounding is too bright. The enhanced night vision function capture the videos in night more clearly, even in dark.
  • 【 Parking Monitoring & Easy Installation 】This Car dash cam features motion detection and a parking monitor mode to record your car’s Surroundings when parking. A Detailed Instruction Manual Makes the Usage very Easy. The 360-Degree rotatable Suction Cup Bracket can be Fixed on the Shield Window in Several Seconds. The Dash Cam will Auto on/off When the Car Engine is on/off.you will have a 1-year warranty automatically. And our after-sales team is 24hours online for you.
  • 【Warm Tips 1 】This dashcam for cars builts in 200mAh battery is just to maintain and save settings. Please plug power while use it.
  • 【Warm Tips 2 】This dashcam have no time lapse video function.when car turns off, dash cam will be off.

Additional Info :

Color Black

Buying Guide of  dashcam back cameras:

The best way to make the most of your time is to list the things you want to buy, weighing all the factors before deciding. There are many ways this post can suggest that will help you do this and avoid purchasing the wrong product. If you’re in a hurry for some reason, take our word for it don’t buy anything until you’ve finished reading this post! These factors will help you make the right decision when buying a product. Here are some of the things that you should consider before buying a product:

  • Price: How much are you willing to spend on your new product? If money is not an issue, you can choose the most expensive option. However, if you have a tight budget, then it is important to choose one that fits your needs and budget.
  • Durability: You need to consider how long your dashcam back cameras will last before you buy it. Investing in something that will last longer than buying something that will break down after just a few uses is always better.
  • Quality: The quality of dashcam back cameras should be considered before buying it. A good product will have high-quality materials used during manufacturing and construction.
  • Brand: The brand reputation of a particular product is also important because it tells you how reliable they are and how they stand behind their products.

Here is a brief description of important factors for buying a product:

Check Reviews

This is a great way to know what other people have experienced with dashcam back cameras. You can check out user reviews on Amazon or other websites where users can post their thoughts on a product. The best place to look for reviews is on Amazon, which has a star rating system that gives you an idea of how good or bad a product is. If there are enough reviews with bad ratings (less than 3 stars), it’s probably not worth buying that product.

Look at the price

This may seem obvious, but it’s important not to just look at how much something costs and decide that it’s too expensive. Instead, you should compare prices between different sellers and see which offers more value for money! For example, if you find a similar product for $10 cheaper elsewhere, it might be worth buying from that seller instead of the first one you came across!

Type of product

There are many types of dashcam back cameras you can buy. Some are basic, while others are advanced. You need to determine what type of product you need and then buy one that fits your needs. For example, if you want a simple product, the best choice is a basic one. However, suppose you want something more advanced. In that case, it’s better to get an expensive one because it will have extra features.

Size

The product size also matters when choosing the right dashcam back cameras for yourself or someone else, as different people have different requirements when using their products. For example, if there is someone who uses large sized products or devices, then he/she would need something bigger than others who use smaller devices or tools. Therefore, it is important that you look at the size of each product before purchasing them so that they can meet all your needs and requirements in terms of size.

Brand

You need to buy a branded product because it has been tested and proven effective by many people before you buy it. Brands also have guarantees on their dashcam back cameras so that if anything happens to your new item within the warranty period, they will repair it or replace it without hassle.

Durability

You should consider how long the dashcam back cameras will last. This is because it is important for you to buy something that will serve your needs for years. If many people have used a particular product without any problem, then it means that it is durable and can serve your purpose well.

Easy to Use

When buying a dashcam back cameras, make sure that it is easy to use so that you do not experience any difficulties while using it after purchase. Some dashcam back cameras may look great but are too complicated for your level of expertise or knowledge about them. Make sure that the product is user-friendly so that even someone who does not have much experience can use it comfortably without any problems or inconveniences whatsoever.

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